The question to ask is: How do we manage to transfer information from the ultra-short-term memory into the long-term memory? Or better said, how do we learn?
Once we come into contact with external stimuli, it is automatically transferred to the ultra-short-term memory. If we give focus our attention on it, the information wanders into short-term memory. After that, we analyze the meaning for us of the information, and only then it is stored for a long time into our memory. The consolidation of the information lasts at least some days, but there is still also information that is predisposed to forgetting.
This process takes so many stages because our brain has to make a reorganization of the cortical structures to assimilate the new information and connect it with the information that is already present in our brain.
And then we need to consider the depth of processing the information. Deeper processing helps us to remember something for a longer time. Next to the depth of processing we also need to consider the context, in which the information is presented.
Another form of learning is implicit learning – hereby we learn complex information unconsciously. E.g. Content of a movie or a book, driving a bike. Consequently, learning happens consciously but also unconsciously. Recognition is easier than reproduction.
The more time passes the more we tend to forget. Or when we learn new information the old one cannot be accessed on a certain time period. Furthermore, we learn in a certain context, if we forget his context we cannot retrieve the information from our brain. Sleep plays a key factor in consolidating information.
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Looking forward to reading your feedback in the comment section!