1) Logical Deductions
How do people make logical deductions in their daily lives? This question is essential because deductions are used in many cognitive processes like the consideration, if an object has certain features or not, in planning, communication, in the reconstruction of memories, solving of problems and predictions.
But how do these deductions work? People make deductions based on a mental logic by using abstract, logical rules whereas the content is not taking into consideration. In some cases, the general logical rules are replaced by specific rules. There is also the possibility that people use mental models based on certain assumptions and knowledge about how the world is working. These models are used when making a deduction.
2) Judgments and Decisions
When we make judgments we use probabilities. This gives a different degree of intensity concerning the insecurity we are feeling in different contexts. Therefore we speak of a psychological probability. Those judgments are relevant for predictions, planning, and estimation of success chances. The decision is then made based on the estimation of a negative result and the possibility of taking controls. Probability judgments are not the same as mathematical probability calculations, because there is always the chance of overestimating or underestimate a certain fact.
How do we make these judgments? Sometimes we make use of knowledge (e.g. statistics) in other cases we use heuristics. Those are thumb rules we apply to make probability judgments. Those heuristics are often biased because we can make systematic errors based on cognitive illusions.
Taking decisions means going through of process of awareness, in case you have a minimum of two action possibilities. Examples for decisions are: take a topic for scientific work, buy a new laptop, investment in a business, marriage, children, etc.
Here are some interesting materials in order to improve your reasoning skills:
If you want to play some science-based interactive games to train your memory, I want to invite you to make yourself a profile on:
They have also a free version, but you can upgrade also to the premium version to make your brain fit like a sneaker!
Looking forward to reading your feedback in the comment section!